Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatric
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in early childhood characterized by distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and/or inattention.
- Three subsets: predominantly hyperactivity (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I), or combined (ADHD-C)
- System(s) affected: nervous
- Predominant age: onset <12 years; lasts into adolescence and adulthood
- Predominant sex: male > female (2:1); ADHD-I is more common in girls.
9–15% of children 4 to 17 years old
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Not definitive—suggested pathogenesis includes imbalance of catecholamine metabolism and structural brain differences. Environmental influences are controversial.
- Family history (genetic component)
- Medical causes (affecting brain development)—including prenatal tobacco exposure and prematurity
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Mood disorders—depression, anxiety
- Behavior disorders—oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder
- Autism spectrum disorders
- Physiologic disorders—sleep disorders, tics
- Learning disabilities, developmental coordination syndrome, language disorder
- Substance use disorders
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