Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatric

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatric is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental problem that manifests in early childhood characterized by distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and/or inattention.
  • Three subsets: predominantly hyperactivity impulsive (ADHD-HI), predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I), or combined (ADHD-C)
  • System(s) affected: nervous
  • Synonym(s): attention deficit disorder; hyperactivity

Epidemiology

  • Predominant age: onset <12 years; lasts into adolescence and adulthood; 50% meet diagnostic criteria by age 4 years.
  • Predominant sex: male > female (2:1);ADHD-I may be more common in girls.

Prevalence
11% of children 4 to 17 years old were diagnosed with ADHD as of 2011. Of those, 6.1% are receiving a medication for ADHD.

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Not definitive

Genetics
Familial pattern

Risk Factors

  • Family history
  • Medical causes (affecting brain development)
  • Environmental causes (toxins such as lead, fetal alcohol, and nutritional deficiencies)

General Prevention

  • Children are at risk for abuse, depression, and isolation.
  • Parents need regular support and advice.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Depression (in up to 1/3 of cases)
  • Oppositional defiant disorder
  • Conduct disorder
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Learning disabilities

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Citation

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TY - ELEC T1 - Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatric ID - 816485 Y1 - 2019 PB - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816485/all/Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder__Pediatric ER -