Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatric
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- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental problem that manifests in early childhood characterized by distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and/or inattention.
- Three subsets: predominantly hyperactivity impulsive (ADHD-HI), predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I), or combined (ADHD-C)
- System(s) affected: nervous
- Synonym(s): attention deficit disorder; hyperactivity
- Predominant age: onset <12 years; lasts into adolescence and adulthood; 50% meet diagnostic criteria by age 4 years.
- Predominant sex: male > female (2:1);ADHD-I may be more common in girls.
11% of children 4 to 17 years old were diagnosed with ADHD as of 2011. Of those, 6.1% are receiving a medication for ADHD.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Family history
- Medical causes (affecting brain development)
- Environmental causes (toxins such as lead, fetal alcohol, and nutritional deficiencies)
- Children are at risk for abuse, depression, and isolation.
- Parents need regular support and advice.
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Depression (in up to 1/3 of cases)
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Conduct disorder
- Anxiety disorder
- Learning disabilities