Toxic Alcohols is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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Basics

Description

  • Toxic alcohols discussed here include ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, and methanol.
  • Ethylene glycol is a sweet, odorless, colorless liquid, commonly used as automobile antifreeze solution as well as for other uses.
  • Isopropyl alcohol is used as rubbing alcohol, as well as in liquid soaps and for other uses.
  • Methanol is wood alcohol used in windshield wiper fluid, Sterno, and other products.

General Prevention

Poison proofing homes and giving parents poison prevention advice is the most effective way to prevent toxic alcohol exposures in children.

Risk Factors

Toxicity via dermal absorption can occur in infants or young children with permeable skin.

Pathophysiology

All toxic alcohols have direct effects as intoxicants. More importantly, ethylene glycol and methanol are metabolized to toxic by-products that result in severe morbidity or mortality.

  • All toxic alcohols may result in altered mental status or coma similar to ethanol. CNS depression may result in respiratory depression requiring ventilatory support.
  • Ethylene glycol is metabolized to oxalic acid and glycolic acid, ultimately forming calcium oxalate crystals, which may precipitate in the renal tubules and cause renal failure.
  • Methanol is metabolized to formaldehyde and then formic acid, which may damage the retina and cause visual impairment or blindness.
  • The metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol to their toxic metabolites may be prevented by competitively inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase with either fomepizole or ethanol.
  • Therapy to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase is used for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure.
  • Isopropyl alcohol is metabolized to acetone.
  • Inhalational absorption of isopropyl alcohol may rarely occur.

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Citation

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TY - ELEC T1 - Toxic Alcohols ID - 14207 Y1 - 2015 PB - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14207/all/Toxic_Alcohols ER -