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Microscopic inflammation of mucosa of stomach
- Most common cause of upper GI tract hemorrhage in older children
- 8 out of every 1,000 people are estimated to have gastritis.
- >2% of ICU patients have heavy bleeding secondary to gastritis.
- Physiologic stress (e.g., chronic disease, CNS disease, overwhelming sepsis, ICU patients)
- Peptic disease
- Drug-induced (e.g., NSAIDs, steroids, valproate; more rarely, iron, calcium salts, potassium chloride, antibiotics)
- Infection (e.g., tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, parasites)
- H. pylori (children more likely to have more severe gastritis, specifically located in antrum of stomach)
- Celiac disease: lymphocytic gastritis
- Major surgery; severe burns; renal, liver, respiratory failure; severe trauma
- Caustic ingestions (e.g., lye, strong acids, pine oil)
- Protein sensitivity (e.g., cow’s milk-protein allergy), allergic enteropathy
- Eosinophilic gastroenteritis
- Crohn disease: Up to 40% of Crohn patients have gastroduodenal involvement.
- Gastric Crohn disease may manifest itself as highly focal, non–H. pylori, nongranulomatous gastritis.
- Direct trauma (nasogastric tubes)
- Less common causes:
- Hypertrophic gastritis (Ménétrier disease)
- Autoimmune gastritis
- Collagenous gastritis
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
- Vascular injury