Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Ewing Sarcoma

Ewing Sarcoma is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Medicine Central™ is a quick-consult mobile and web resource that includes diagnosis, treatment, medications, and follow-up information on over 700 diseases and disorders, providing fast answers—anytime, anywhere. Explore these free sample topics:

Medicine Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --



  • Family of cancers with common biology and treatment:
    • Ewing sarcoma of bone
    • Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (arises in soft tissue adjacent to bone)
    • Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of bone or soft tissue
    • Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall)
  • Most common primary tumor sites are as follows:
    • Pelvic bones (26%)
    • Femur (20%)
    • Chest wall (16%)


  • 2nd most common primary bone cancer of children and young adults after osteosarcoma
  • Median age of diagnosis is 15 years, although can occur in any age group
  • Slight male predominance


  • ∼200–250 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year.
  • Annual incidence in the United States of 2.7 cases per million children younger than 15 years of age
  • Most (∼65%) occur in the 2nd decade of life.
  • Strikingly lower incidence in sub-Saharan Africa and in African American population

Risk Factors

  • Most cases occur sporadically.
  • Not associated with familial cancer syndromes
  • Only rarely reported as a second malignancy
  • One genome-wide association study identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with higher risk.
  • Epidemiologic studies suggest higher risk in patients with history of inguinal or umbilical hernia.

General Prevention

  • There are no known preventive measures.


  • Rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22 is detected in >95% of cases.
    • 85% of cases have a t(11;22) translocation resulting in a fusion EWS-FLI1 protein.
    • 10% of cases have a t(21;22) translocation between EWS and ERG.
    • Other translocation partners occur in <1% of cases and include other members of the ETS transcription factor family, such as ETV1.
  • Fusion proteins thought to play a role as aberrant transcription factor

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --


Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Ewing Sarcoma." Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics, 7th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14155/all/Ewing_Sarcoma.
Ewing Sarcoma. In: Cabana MD, ed. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14155/all/Ewing_Sarcoma. Accessed April 21, 2019.
Ewing Sarcoma. (2015). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14155/all/Ewing_Sarcoma
Ewing Sarcoma [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14155/all/Ewing_Sarcoma.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Ewing Sarcoma ID - 14155 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14155/all/Ewing_Sarcoma PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -