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- Common benign, keratin-filled cysts that present as white pinpoint papules most typically on the face but may occur elsewhere on the body (palate, gingiva, penis)
- Subtypes include primary and secondary milia.
- Primary: spontaneous
- Secondary: secondary to trauma, medications, or another disease
- Milia en plaque—rare type of primary milia which typically occurs in the posterior auricular area as an erythematous plaque
- Congenital milia is the most common form of primary milia.
- Approx. 40% of newborns have milia.
- Less common in premature infants
- No gender or racial predilection
- Secondary milia can occur in all age groups.
- Full-term newborns
- Any bullous condition increases the risk of secondary milia, particularly epidermolysis bullosa and porphyria.
- No known genetic predisposition for primary congenital milia, the most common type of milia encountered in pediatrics
- Milia may be a major feature of rare genetic diseases of the skin (Loeys-Dietz syndrome, oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1, Rombo syndrome, or Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome).
There are no known preventative measures for primary milia.
- Retention of keratin and sebaceous material within the pilosebaceous duct, eccrine sweat duct, or sebaceous collar surrounding fine vellus hair
- Most commonly spontaneous in newborns
- May be related to trauma or blistering conditions in older children