Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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Basics

Description

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a viral illness with the characteristic clinical features of the following:

  • Vesiculoulcerative stomatitis
  • Papular or vesicular exanthem on the hands and/or the feet
  • Mild constitutional symptoms such as fever and malaise

General Prevention

  • Frequent hand washing, especially after changing diapers, and good personal hygiene are the most useful means to prevent spread of enteroviral illnesses.
  • Contact precautions should be maintained with all hospitalized patients.
  • The prodromal and enanthem periods appear to be the most contagious; however, some may shed virus in the stool 3 months after infection.

Epidemiology

  • In temperate climates, hand, foot, and mouth disease is most common in the summer and fall (a pattern common to many of the enterovirus infections).
  • In tropical climates, disease is present year-round.
  • Transmitted by oral–fecal route. Respiratory secretions may also transmit the virus.
  • Incubation period is 3–6 days.
  • Highly contagious, afflicting up to 50% of those exposed
  • Close household contacts are particularly susceptible.
  • Most common in children younger than 5 years but may affect adults
  • May occur as an isolated case or in an epidemic distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Enteroviruses are acquired primarily from oral–fecal contamination.
  • Lymphatic invasion leads to viremia and spread to secondary sites.
  • Viremia ceases with antibody production.
  • Direct inoculation of the extremities from oral lesions has been hypothesized with regard to hand, foot, and mouth disease.

Etiology

Coxsackie A16 virus is the most common causative agent. Other serotypes include the following:

  • Coxsackieviruses A5, A7, A9, A10, A16, B1, and B3
  • Enterovirus 71
  • Echoviruses
  • Other enteroviruses

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Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease ID - 14109 Y1 - 2015 PB - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14109/all/Hand__Foot__and_Mouth_Disease ER -