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Gastroesophageal Reflux

Gastroesophageal Reflux is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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  • Effortless regurgitation of gastric contents. Occurs physiologically at all ages, and most episodes are brief and asymptomatic
  • Divided into physiologic and pathologic processes:
    • Some degree of physiologic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is normal at all ages.
    • Physiologic infant reflux (normal GER of infancy) is very common. Symptoms peak around 4 months of age and generally have resolved by 1 year of age.
    • Pathologic reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined by troublesome symptoms or complications of GER.
    • Complications may include reflux esophagitis, bleeding, esophageal stricture, failure to thrive, chronic/recurrent respiratory tract disease, or vomiting.



  • Pathologic GERD: 10% of adults, 2–8% of children

Risk Factors

  • Neurologic disorders (cerebral palsy/quadriplegia)
  • Esophageal atresia
  • Tracheoesophageal fistula
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Asthma
  • Gastroparesis
  • Hiatal hernia


Transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter during episodes of increased abdominal and gastric pressure. GERD is a multifactorial process involving number of reflux events, acidity, esophageal clearance, gastric emptying, mucosal barriers, visceral hypersensitivity, and airway responsiveness.

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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Gastroesophageal Reflux." Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics, 7th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14083/all/Gastroesophageal_Reflux.
Gastroesophageal Reflux. In: Cabana MD, ed. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14083/all/Gastroesophageal_Reflux. Accessed April 21, 2019.
Gastroesophageal Reflux. (2015). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14083/all/Gastroesophageal_Reflux
Gastroesophageal Reflux [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14083/all/Gastroesophageal_Reflux.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Gastroesophageal Reflux ID - 14083 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14083/all/Gastroesophageal_Reflux PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -