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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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Increased pulmonary vascular resistance



Incidence in children is unknown.


  • Structural alterations in pulmonary vessel architecture (remodeling)
  • Smooth muscle hypertrophy
  • Extension of blood vessel’s smooth muscle into smaller vessels
  • Inflammation


  • Hypoxemia-induced pulmonary hypertension
  • Chronic lung disease
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
    • Interstitial lung disease
    • Diaphragmatic hernia with secondary pulmonary hypoplasia
  • Upper airway obstruction
    • Tonsillar and/or adenoid hypertrophy
    • Obesity
  • Hypoventilation
    • Neurologically mediated process
    • Secondary to muscular weakness
  • High pulmonary blood flow secondary to left-to-right shunting (seen in congenital heart disease)
    • Patent ductus arteriosus
    • Atrial septal defect
    • Ventricular septal defect
  • Left-sided cardiac disorders that increase pulmonary venous pressure
    • Left ventricular failure
    • Mitral valve stenosis
    • Obstructed anomalous pulmonary veins
  • Occlusion of pulmonary vessels
    • Sickle cell disease
    • Veno-occlusive disease
    • Thromboembolism
  • Pulmonary vasculitis
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Scleroderma
  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  • Idiopathic cases (primary pulmonary hypertension)

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* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Pulmonary Hypertension ID - 14078 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14078/all/Pulmonary_Hypertension PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -