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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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Basics

Description

Increased pulmonary vascular resistance

Epidemiology

Incidence

Incidence in children is unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Structural alterations in pulmonary vessel architecture (remodeling)
  • Smooth muscle hypertrophy
  • Extension of blood vessel’s smooth muscle into smaller vessels
  • Inflammation

Etiology

  • Hypoxemia-induced pulmonary hypertension
  • Chronic lung disease
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
    • Interstitial lung disease
    • Diaphragmatic hernia with secondary pulmonary hypoplasia
  • Upper airway obstruction
    • Tonsillar and/or adenoid hypertrophy
    • Obesity
  • Hypoventilation
    • Neurologically mediated process
    • Secondary to muscular weakness
  • High pulmonary blood flow secondary to left-to-right shunting (seen in congenital heart disease)
    • Patent ductus arteriosus
    • Atrial septal defect
    • Ventricular septal defect
  • Left-sided cardiac disorders that increase pulmonary venous pressure
    • Left ventricular failure
    • Mitral valve stenosis
    • Obstructed anomalous pulmonary veins
  • Occlusion of pulmonary vessels
    • Sickle cell disease
    • Veno-occlusive disease
    • Thromboembolism
  • Pulmonary vasculitis
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Scleroderma
  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  • Idiopathic cases (primary pulmonary hypertension)

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Citation

Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Pulmonary Hypertension." Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics, 7th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14078/all/Pulmonary_Hypertension.
Pulmonary Hypertension. In: Cabana MD, ed. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14078/all/Pulmonary_Hypertension. Accessed April 18, 2019.
Pulmonary Hypertension. (2015). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14078/all/Pulmonary_Hypertension
Pulmonary Hypertension [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14078/all/Pulmonary_Hypertension.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Pulmonary Hypertension ID - 14078 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14078/all/Pulmonary_Hypertension PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -