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Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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Basics

Description

  • Methemoglobin is dysfunctional hemoglobin in which the deoxygenated heme moiety has been oxidized from the ferrous (Fe2+) to the ferric (Fe3+) state.
  • Methemoglobinemia is an undue accumulation of methemoglobin within the blood.

Epidemiology

  • Toxic methemoglobinemia, resulting from exposure to oxidant chemicals or drugs, is the most common cause of methemoglobinemia among children older than 6 months of age.
  • Enteritis-associated methemoglobinemia is the most common cause among children younger than 6 months of age:
    • As many as 2/3 of infants with severe diarrhea have methemoglobinemia.

Pathophysiology

  • Hemoglobin in the allosteric configuration of methemoglobin cannot carry oxygen.
  • Methemoglobin increases the oxygen affinity of normal heme moieties in the blood and results in impaired oxygen delivery to tissues.
  • NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 methemoglobin reductase is the major source of physiologic reduction of methemoglobin.
  • A normally dormant NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase is the site of action for antidotal methylene blue therapy.

Etiology

  • Toxic methemoglobinemia
    • Dietary or environmental chemicals: chlorates, chromates, copper sulfate fungicides, naphthalene, nitrates, and nitrites
    • Industrial chemicals: aniline and other nitrogenated organic compounds
    • Drugs: amyl nitrite, benzocaine, dapsone, lidocaine, metoclopramide, nitric oxide, nitroprusside, phenazopyridine, prilocaine, many others
    • Methemoglobinemia is a common iatrogenic complication of drug therapy.
  • Enteritis-associated methemoglobinemia is multifactorial in origin:
    • Intestinal nitrate and nitric oxide promotes methemoglobin formation.
    • Innate enzymatic methemoglobin reduction systems may be underdeveloped during infancy.
    • Acidemia further inhibits enzymatic methemoglobin reduction systems.
    • Methemoglobinemia is also reported with nitrite-producing bacterial infections of the intestines or urinary tract.
  • Congenital methemoglobinemia (rare)
    • Hemoglobin M: Heterozygotes for autosomal dominant hemoglobin M will exhibit lifelong cyanosis.
    • NADH-dependent methemoglobin reductase deficiency: Homozygotes for this autosomal recessive enzyme will have lifelong cyanosis; heterozygotes may have increased susceptibility to oxidative hemoglobin injury.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Heinz body hemolytic anemia
    • Oxidant stress on the globin protein may cause hemolysis.
  • Sulfhemoglobinemia
    • Oxidant stress on the hemoglobin porphyrin ring may cause sulfhemoglobinemia.

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Citation

Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Methemoglobinemia." Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics, 7th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14050/all/Methemoglobinemia.
Methemoglobinemia. In: Cabana MD, ed. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14050/all/Methemoglobinemia. Accessed April 18, 2019.
Methemoglobinemia. (2015). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14050/all/Methemoglobinemia
Methemoglobinemia [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14050/all/Methemoglobinemia.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Methemoglobinemia ID - 14050 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14050/all/Methemoglobinemia PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -