Pyelonephritis is a topic covered in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests.

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Acute, uncomplicated (usually young women): Enterobacteriaceae (especially E. coli ) (GNR), enterococci (GPC in chains), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (GPC), S. aureus (GPC).

Complicated (older women, men; postcatheterization, obstruction, post-renal transplant): Enterobacteriaceae (especially E. coli ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GNR), enterococcus (GPC), S. aureus (GPC).

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