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  • Depression
  • Alcohol abuse


  • Acute: emotional stress, physical discomfort, jet lag
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Stimulants, eg, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, pseudoephedrine
  • Depression
  • Poor sleep hygiene, eg, daytime naps, TV in bed
  • Mania or bipolar disorder
  • Medical illness, eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, uremia, hyperthyroidism, hepatic encephalopathy, gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Nocturia, eg, diuretics, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, congestive heart failure
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Menopause
  • CNS disease, eg, complex partial seizures, brain tumor, neurosyphilis
  • Medications, eg, corticosteroids, SSRIs, theophylline, benzodiazepine withdrawal
  • Circadian rhythm disorder

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Last updated: February 24, 2015