- Tracheal stenosis, acquired (intubation, trauma)
- Tracheal stenosis, congenital
- Tracheal tumor (primary or metastatic)
- Extrinsic compression by tumor of lung, thyroid, thymus; lymphadenopathy; congenital vascular rings; aneurysms
- Foreign-body aspiration
- Tracheal granulomas or papillomas
- Tracheal trauma
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