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Dyspnea is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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  • Asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolus, metabolic acidosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, panic attack
  • Airflow obstruction (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, upper airway obstruction), restrictive lung disease (interstitial lung disease, pleural thickening or effusion, respiratory muscle weakness, obesity), pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, aspiration, acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, valvular obstruction, arrhythmia, cardiac tamponade
  • Acidosis, hypercapnia, sepsis
  • Anemia, methemoglobinemia
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Last updated: December 1, 2014


Zeiger, Roni F.. "Dyspnea." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Diagnosaurus/114552/all/Dyspnea.
Zeiger RF. Dyspnea. Diagnosaurus. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Diagnosaurus/114552/all/Dyspnea. Accessed April 18, 2019.
Zeiger, R. F. (2014). Dyspnea. In Diagnosaurus. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Diagnosaurus/114552/all/Dyspnea
Zeiger RF. Dyspnea [Internet]. In: Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Diagnosaurus/114552/all/Dyspnea.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Dyspnea ID - 114552 A1 - Zeiger,Roni F, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ BT - Diagnosaurus UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Diagnosaurus/114552/all/Dyspnea PB - McGraw-Hill Education ET - 4 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -