Intestinal bacterial overgrowth
- Gastric achlorhydria
- Anatomic abnormality of small intestine with stagnation: afferent limb of Billroth II gastrojejunostomy, small intestine diverticula, obstruction, blind loop, radiation enteritis
- Small intestine motility disorder: scleroderma, diabetic enteropathy, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction
- Gastrocolic or coloenteric fistula: Crohn's disease, malignancy, surgical resection
- Miscellaneous: AIDS, chronic pancreatitis
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