Nausea and vomiting



  • Norwalk or rotavirus
  • "Food poisoning" by toxins from B. cereus, S. aureus, C. perfringens
  • Hepatitis A or B
  • Meningitis or encephalitis
  • Acute systemic infections
Hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Cholecystitis or cholelithiasis
Topical gastrointestinal irritants
  • Alcohol, NSAIDs, oral antibiotics
Systemic drugs
  • Antitumor chemotherapy
  • Alcohol
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Opioids
Mechanical obstruction
  • Gastric outlet obstruction: peptic ulcer disease, malignancy, gastric volvulus
  • Small intestine: adhesions, hernias, volvulus, Crohn's disease, carcinomatosis
  • Gastroparesis: diabetic, medications, postviral, postvagotomy
  • Small intestine: scleroderma, amyloidosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, familial myoneuropathies
  • Perforated viscus
  • Appendicitis
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
Vestibular disorders
  • Labyrinthitis, Ménière's disease, motion sickness, migraine
Increased intracranial pressure
  • CNS tumors
  • Subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Anticipatory vomiting
  • Bulimia
  • Psychiatric disorders
  • Myocardial infarction, hypercalcemia, kidney stones, pyelonephritis, diabetic ketoacidosis, uremia, pregnancy, radiation therapy, adrenal crisis, parathyroid disease, hypothyroidism, paraneoplastic syndrome

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Last updated: December 1, 2014