Hyperprolactinemia

Hyperprolactinemia is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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Etiology

Physiologic

  • Pregnancy
  • Postpartum
  • Suckling
  • Nipple stimulation
  • Macroprolactinemia (relatively inactive "big prolactin")
  • Idiopathic
  • Exercise
  • Sleep (REM phase)
  • Stress (trauma, surgery)
Drugs (selected)
  • Psychotropics
  • Cimetidine
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Marijuana
Pathologic
  • Prolactinoma
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Cirrhosis
  • Renal failure
  • Acromegaly (pituitary tumor may cosecrete prolactin & growth hormone)
  • Hypothalamic disease
  • Other growth near pituitary
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Chronic chest wall stimulation (nipple piercing, mastectomy, thoracotomy, herpes zoster, breast augmentation)
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Optic neuritis
  • Spinal cord lesions

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Last updated: December 1, 2014