Muscle cramps or tetany

Muscle cramps or tetany is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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DDx

Nocturnal leg cramps

  • Idiopathic
  • Diabetes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • CNS or spinal cord disease
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Hemodialysis
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Drugs: cisplatin, vincristine
Other causes of muscle cramps
  • Muscle injury, eg, sports
  • Dehydration
  • Hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia
  • Alkalosis (eg, vomiting, hyperventilation)
  • Vascular insufficiency (claudication)
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Dystonia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Celiac disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Black widow spider bite
  • McArdle’s disease (muscle fatigue, cramping, high CK)

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Last updated: December 1, 2014