Joint effusion by joint fluid type

Joint effusion by joint fluid type is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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Etiology

Group I: Noninflammatory (200-300 WBC, < 25% PMNs)

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Trauma (may be hemorrhagic)
  • Osteochondritis dissecans
  • Osteochondromatosis
  • Neuropathic arthropathy (may be hemorrhagic)
  • Subsiding or early inflammation
  • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (group I or II)
  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis (may be hemorrhagic)
Group II: Inflammatory (3000-50,000 WBC, >50% PMNs)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Gout or pseudogout
  • Reactive arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Arthritis accompanying inflammatory bowel disease
  • Rheumatic fever (group I or II)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (group I or II)
  • Scleroderma (group I or II)
  • Tuberculosis
  • Mycotic infection
Group III: Purulent (>50,000 WBC, >75% PMNs)
  • Pyogenic bacterial infection
Hemorrhagic
  • Hemophilia or other bleeding disorder
  • Trauma with or without fracture
  • Neuropathic arthropathy
  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis
  • Synovioma
  • Hemangioma and other benign neoplasms

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Last updated: December 1, 2014