adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase inhibitors
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients who require additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (as adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy).
Inhibits adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, which inhibits cholesterol synthesis in the liver and subsequently lowers LDL-C.
Reduction in LDL-C levels.
Distribution: Some distribution to extravascular tissues.
Metabolism and Excretion: Metabolized in liver to active metabolite (ESP15228); both parent drug and ESP15228 are also metabolized via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites. 70% excreted in urine and 30% excreted in feces primarily as metabolites (<5% excreted as unchanged drug in urine and feces).
Half-life: 21 hr.
TIME/ACTION PROFILE (plasma concentrations)
|PO||unknown||3.5 hr||24 hr|
- OB: Pregnancy (may cause fetal harm);
- Lactation: Lactation.
Use Cautiously in:
- History of gout
- Concurrent use of corticosteroids or fluoroquinolones, renal failure, or previous tendon disorders (↑ risk of tendon rupture/injury)
- Severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease
- Severe hepatic impairment
- Pedi: Safety and effectiveness in children not established;
- Geri: ↑ risk of tendon rupture/injury in patients >60 yr.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
CV: atrial fibrillation
GI: abdominal pain, ↑ liver enzymes
GU: benign prostatic hyperplasia, ↑ blood urea nitrogen, ↑ serum creatinine
Metabolic: hyperuricemia, gout
MS: back pain, ↑ creatine kinase, muscle spasm, tendon rupture/injury
Resp: upper respiratory tract infection
* CAPITALS indicate life-threatening.
Underline indicate most frequent.
PO (Adults): 180 mg once daily.
Tablets: 180 mg
- Obtain a diet history, especially with regard to fat consumption.
- Monitor for signs and symptoms of hyperuricemia (gout) periodically during therapy. May occur within 4 wk of therapy. Initiate treatment with urate-lowering drugs as appropriate.
- Monitor for signs and symptoms of tendon rupture (joint pain, swelling, inflammation) periodically during therapy. May occur within days to months of starting therapy and more frequently in patients >60 years of age, taking corticosteroid or fluoroquinolones, with renal failure, and with previous tendon disorders. Consider discontinuing therapy if symptoms occur and discontinue therapy if tendon rupture occurs.
Lab Test Considerations:
Evaluate serum cholesterol levels before initiating, after 8–12 wk of therapy, and periodically thereafter.
- Monitor serum uric acid levels periodically if symptoms of hyperuricemia occur.
- May cause ↑ BUN and serum creatinine.
- May cause ↓ hemoglobin and leukocytes and ↑ platelet count.
- May cause ↑ AST, ALT, and creatine kinase.
- Noncompliance (Patient/Family/Teaching)
- PO Administer once daily without regard to food.
- Instruct patient to take medication as directed. Advise patient to read Patient Information before starting and with each Rx refill in case of changes.
- Advise patient that this medication should be used in conjunction with diet restrictions (fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, alcohol), exercise, and cessation of smoking.
- Advise patient to notify health care professional if signs and symptoms of hyperuricemia (severe foot pain especially in the toe joint, tender joints, warm joints, joint redness, swelling) occur.
- Advise patient to rest at the first sign of tendinitis (pain, swelling, tears, inflammation of tendons including arm, shoulder, back of the ankle) or tendon rupture (hear or feel a snap or pop in a tendon area, bruising right after an injury in a tendon area, unable to move affected area or put weight on affected area) and stop medication and contact health care professional if tendinitis or tendon rupture symptoms occur.
- Instruct patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and consult health care professional before taking any new medications.
- Rep: Advise females of reproductive potential to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breast feeding. Bempedoic acid should be discontinued during pregnancy and lactation.
Reduction in LDL-C levels. Evaluate in 8–12 wk.