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Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections

Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpes virus family: human herpes virus 4 (1)
    • Two subtypes: ST1 predominates in Western Hemisphere, Southeast Asia; ST1 and ST2 equally prevalent in Africa
  • Primary infection typically occurs in childhood; responsible for infectious mononucleosis (IM) (most common disease association); linked to numerous cancers
  • WHO classified EBV as “tumor virus” (Group I carcinogen) due to cancer association (1).

Epidemiology

Prevalence
Worldwide, infects >90% of people (antibody-positive)


Incidence
  • Military, college students, and others living in cloistered and crowded populations have highest infection rate. Overall rate in United States is 500/100,000 (2).
  • Predominant age of primary infection is 10 to 19 years; 200 to 800/100,000 affected (2)
    • Primary clinical manifestation is IM.
    • Early childhood infections are usually asymptomatic.
  • Seroconversion occurs later in childhood in developed countries; there is suggestion of race/ethnicity disparity in the United States with higher seroprevalence in non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic populations (2).

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • After inoculation, the virus replicates in the nasopharyngeal epithelium with resulting cell lysis, virion spread, and viremia. The reticuloendothelial system is affected, resulting in a host response and the appearance of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Viral genome can be detected in the oral cavity 1 week prior to displaying symptoms.
  • A polyclonal B-cell proliferative response follows. Relatively few (<0.1%) of the circulating lymphocytes are infected by EBV in the acute illness.
  • A persistent (asymptomatic) state ensues with the EBV genome invisible to the immune system.
  • A subsequent coinfection increases risk for an EBV-associated condition (e.g., malignancy).
  • Either through B-cell stimulation or diminished EBV-specific immune modulation, the previously latent EBV-infected B cells replicate, allowing clinical expression of the EBV genome. The proteins produced may either modify host response to or contribute directly to subsequent malignancy (1,3).
  • Immunosuppression (organ transplant/acquired immune deficiency) can result in transformation and lymphoproliferative disorders.

Risk Factors

  • Age (highest incidence in adolescent, young adults)
  • Socio-hygienic level (“crowed conditions”)
  • Geographic location
  • Close, intimate contact; especially “deep kissing” in adolescents and young adults (4)
  • Immunosuppression

General Prevention

  • Avoid close physical contact with symptomatic EBV/IM patients.
  • Good hand washing and hygiene
  • General precautions with potential blood exposure (EBV can be transmitted via blood contamination, as well as hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplant)
  • EBV vaccines are undergoing study but have had limited efficacy in small studies.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • IM: Symptomatic primary EBV infection is common in otherwise healthy adolescents, and young adults.
    • Clinical features vary in severity and duration: In children age <10 years, generally mild; in adolescents and adults, symptoms can be more severe and protracted.
    • Incubation period is 30 to 50 days.
  • X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP-rare inherited extreme vulnerability to EBV infection)
  • Lymphoproliferative syndromes due to EBV infections in transplant recipients
  • Lymphomas (B-cell lymphoblastic, T-cell)
  • Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis
  • Hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, leiomyosarcoma, and CNS lymphomas in patients with AIDS
  • Burkitt lymphoma (most common childhood tumor in Africa and Papua New Guinea where malaria is also endemic and may be a cofactor)
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (particularly in Southeast China)
  • Parotid carcinoma
  • Hodgkin lymphoma (most common EBV-associated malignancy in United States, European Union)
  • Postulated to be associated with multiple sclerosis (2 to 3 times incidence in EBV-positive individuals)
  • Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) due to loss of host control of viral replication

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Citation

Stephens, Mark B., et al., editors. "Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816830/all/Infectious_Mononucleosis__Epstein_Barr_Virus_Infections.
Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 27th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816830/all/Infectious_Mononucleosis__Epstein_Barr_Virus_Infections. Accessed April 19, 2019.
Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections. (2019). In Stephens, M. B., Golding, J., Baldor, R. A., & Domino, F. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816830/all/Infectious_Mononucleosis__Epstein_Barr_Virus_Infections
Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections [Internet]. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, Domino FJ, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 19]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816830/all/Infectious_Mononucleosis__Epstein_Barr_Virus_Infections.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Infectious Mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections ID - 816830 ED - Stephens,Mark B, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Domino,Frank J, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816830/all/Infectious_Mononucleosis__Epstein_Barr_Virus_Infections PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -