Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV)

Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV) is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Medicine Central™ is a quick-consult mobile and web resource that includes diagnosis, treatment, medications, and follow-up information on over 700 diseases and disorders, providing fast answers—anytime, anywhere. Explore these free sample topics:

Medicine Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a mechanical disorder of the inner ear characterized by a brief period of vertigo experienced when the position of the patient’s head is changed relative to gravity.
  • Vertigo results from the mismatch of the perception of movement by the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive symptoms when none exist.
  • The brief period of vertigo is caused by abnormal stimulation of ≥1 of the 3 semicircular canals of the inner ear, with the posterior canal most commonly affected.
  • BPPV is the single most common cause of vertigo.

Epidemiology

  • Lifetime prevalence is 2.4% and 1-year incidence 0.6%.
  • Age of onset is most commonly between the 5th and 7th decades of life.
  • Incidence of increases with each decade of life
  • Prevalent sex: female > male
  • BPPV affects the quality of life of elderly patients and is associated with reduced activities of daily living scores, falls, and depression.

Prevalence
  • Common
  • Lifetime prevalence 2.4% with 1-year incidence 0.6%

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • In BPPV, calcite particles (otoconia) that normally weight the sensory membrane of the maculae become dislodged and settle into the semicircular canal, changing the dynamics of the canal. Reorientation of the canal relative to gravity causes the otoconia to move to the lowest part of the canal, causing displacement of the endolymph, deflection of the cupula, and activation of the primary afferent. This results in the generation of nystagmus and the associated sensation of vertigo.
  • BPPV may be idiopathic, posttraumatic, or associated with viral neurolabyrinthitis.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

Stephens, Mark B., et al., editors. "Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV)." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816703/all/Vertigo__Benign_Paroxysmal_Positional__BPPV_.
Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV). In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 27th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816703/all/Vertigo__Benign_Paroxysmal_Positional__BPPV_. Accessed April 18, 2019.
Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV). (2019). In Stephens, M. B., Golding, J., Baldor, R. A., & Domino, F. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816703/all/Vertigo__Benign_Paroxysmal_Positional__BPPV_
Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV) [Internet]. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, Domino FJ, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816703/all/Vertigo__Benign_Paroxysmal_Positional__BPPV_.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional (BPPV) ID - 816703 ED - Stephens,Mark B, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Domino,Frank J, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816703/all/Vertigo__Benign_Paroxysmal_Positional__BPPV_ PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -