Rhinitis, Cold Air-Induced
- Cold air–induced rhinitis produces nasal symptoms when exposed to cold air.
- Also known as nasal hyperreactivity and is a form of nonallergic rhinitis
- Nasal hyperreactivity is an increased sensitivity to everyday nonspecific external stimuli.
- Cold air–induced rhinitis can occur in chronic allergic and nonallergic rhinitis and those with no nasal disease.
- Symptoms include rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, postnasal drainage, and nasal burning, within minutes after exposure to cold air.
- Symptoms resolve soon after exposure is eliminated.
- Overall epidemiology of rhinitis conditions is difficult to assess due to challenges in classifying rhinitis.
- Prevalence of cold air sensitivity in nonallergic chronic rhinitis is not known (1)[C].
- Rhinitis is a very common disorder affecting 20–40% of the Western population (2)[C].
- Most ENT clinics report a 50–50 division between allergic and nonallergic patients (2)[C].
- Can occur in those with or without nasal disease
- Nonallergic rhinitis presents later in life than allergic rhinitis, with 70% of patients presenting after 20 years of age.
- The prevalence of nonallergic rhinitis in children is not well studied.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Exact mechanism of cold air–induced rhinitis pathophysiology is uncertain. TRP ion channels appear to be involved.
- A major function of the nose is to warm and humidify inhaled air (1)[C].
- As the nose warms and humidifies air, the nasal mucosa loses heat and water (1)[C].
- Nasal mucosa has a dense subepithelial capillary network, allowing for exchange of heat and water to humidify air.
- Cold air–induced rhinorrhea is a state of mucosal hyperresponsiveness.
- Mechanism of action is through activation of mast cell and sensory nerve stimulation, which generates a cholinergic secretory response.
- Cholinergic stimulation causes anterior glandular activation, producing predominately rhinorrhea (3)[C].
- Physical stimulus causes mast cell activation.
- Blocking mast cell products with antihistamine does not alter clinical response to cold air.
- Symptoms may reflect activation of a compensating mechanism to restore mucosal hemostasis (1)[C].
- Nasal hypersensitivity is common in both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis.
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Allergic rhinitis
- Nonallergic rhinitis
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Domino, Frank J., et al., editors. "Rhinitis, Cold Air-Induced." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2020. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816428/all/Rhinitis__Cold_Air_Induced.
Rhinitis, Cold Air-Induced. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816428/all/Rhinitis__Cold_Air_Induced. Accessed June 9, 2023.
Rhinitis, Cold Air-Induced. (2020). In Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult (27th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816428/all/Rhinitis__Cold_Air_Induced
Rhinitis, Cold Air-Induced [Internet]. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, Stephens MBM, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. [cited 2023 June 09]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816428/all/Rhinitis__Cold_Air_Induced.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Rhinitis, Cold Air-Induced ID - 816428 ED - Domino,Frank J, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Stephens,Mark B, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816428/all/Rhinitis__Cold_Air_Induced PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -