Cervical Polyps

Cervical Polyps is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Pedunculated masses, usually single, varying in size that protrude from the cervix, usually originating from the endocervical but can be seen in the ectocervical canal. Cervical polyps may bleed.
  • System(s) affected: reproductive
  • Bright red to pink and appear spongy

Geriatric Considerations
Rare

Pediatric Considerations
Rare

Pregnancy Considerations
Delay removal of polyps until postpartum unless bleeding or cervical dilation is found.

Epidemiology

  • Predominant age: 40 to 60 years
  • Predominant sex: female only
  • 2–5% of females (1)

Incidence
  • Common
  • The incidence of malignant change in a cervical polyp is estimated to be <1%. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy, although adenocarcinomas have been reported. Endometrial cancer may involve the polyp secondarily. Sarcoma rarely develops within a polyp (2).

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Hyperplastic proliferation of cervical or endometrial cells

  • Unknown for most cases
  • Secondary reaction to cervical inflammatory or hormonal stimulation or localized vascular congestion of cervical blood vessels (1)
  • Rare incidence of dysplasia or malignancy

Risk Factors

Trauma, inflammation, pregnancy, elevated estrogen levels, surgical procedure

General Prevention

None known

Commonly Associated Conditions

There is a possibility of coexisting endometrial polyps.

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