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- Pedunculated masses, usually single, varying in size that protrude from the cervix, usually originating from the endocervical but can be seen in the ectocervical canal. Cervical polyps may bleed.
- System(s) affected: reproductive
- Bright red to pink and appear spongy
Delay removal of polyps until postpartum unless bleeding or cervical dilation is found.
- Predominant age: 40 to 60 years
- Predominant sex: female only
- 2–5% of females (1)
- The incidence of malignant change in a cervical polyp is estimated to be <1%. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy, although adenocarcinomas have been reported. Endometrial cancer may involve the polyp secondarily. Sarcoma rarely develops within a polyp (2).
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Hyperplastic proliferation of cervical or endometrial cells
- Unknown for most cases
- Secondary reaction to cervical inflammatory or hormonal stimulation or localized vascular congestion of cervical blood vessels (1)
- Rare incidence of dysplasia or malignancy
Trauma, inflammation, pregnancy, elevated estrogen levels, surgical procedure
Commonly Associated Conditions
There is a possibility of coexisting endometrial polyps.