Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA)

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Basics

Description

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily causing synovial inflammation leading to the destruction of bone and cartilage (1).
  • Classification: based on the duration of disease (1)
    • Early: ≤6 months
    • Established: ≥6 months
    • Based on the disease activity: low, moderate, high, or remission

Epidemiology

Incidence
Annual incidence: United States is approximately 40/100,000 persons.

Prevalence

  • Prevalence: 0.5–1% of the general population worldwide
  • Female:male, 2:1

Etiology and Pathophysiology

The cause remains uncertain; often precipitated by stress or insult (e.g., infection, smoking, trauma)

Genetics
HLA-DRB1

Risk Factors

Females at a younger age (5th to 6th decade), first- and second-degree relative), North American regions, Native Americans, smoking, obesity, lower socioeconomic status infections

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Basics

Description

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily causing synovial inflammation leading to the destruction of bone and cartilage (1).
  • Classification: based on the duration of disease (1)
    • Early: ≤6 months
    • Established: ≥6 months
    • Based on the disease activity: low, moderate, high, or remission

Epidemiology

Incidence
Annual incidence: United States is approximately 40/100,000 persons.

Prevalence

  • Prevalence: 0.5–1% of the general population worldwide
  • Female:male, 2:1

Etiology and Pathophysiology

The cause remains uncertain; often precipitated by stress or insult (e.g., infection, smoking, trauma)

Genetics
HLA-DRB1

Risk Factors

Females at a younger age (5th to 6th decade), first- and second-degree relative), North American regions, Native Americans, smoking, obesity, lower socioeconomic status infections

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