- A single stranded RNA virus (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae)
- Transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes
- The average incubation period is 2 to 4 days (range 1 to 12 days), followed by the sudden onset of fever, severe arthralgia and myalgia, headaches, photophobia, and a rash (1).
- Clinical signs and symptoms are similar to dengue and Zika virus infection.
- Originally confined to Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent; has spread to Europe and the Americas
- 2005 to 2014: India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, and Thailand had >1.9 million cases.
- 2013: Transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was first identified in the Caribbean and has spread to 45 countries.
- 2014: Local transmission was identified in Florida, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
- 2015 to 2016: one local transmission reported from United States; ongoing transmission in U.S. territories
- 2017 to July 2018: no transmission reported in United States
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Bite from Aedes spp. mosquitoes (especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus)
- A. aegypti also transmits dengue and Zika virus. Coinfection with dengue and/or Zika is possible and increasingly reported.
- Aggressive daytime feeders; bites also occur at night.
- Other modes of transmission: maternal–fetal (2); blood transfusion; corneal grafts (3)
- Pathogenesis is uncertain.
- Mother-to-child transmission is seen with intrapartum maternal viremia, often leading to severe neonatal infection, mainly encephalopathy (2).
- Cesarean section with no protective effect on transmission
- Median onset of neonatal disease is 4 days (ranges 3 to 7 days); with fever (100% of cases) and thrombocytopenia (89% of cases)
- There is no evidence for congenital infection in asymptomatic live-born infants exposed during pregnancy (4).
People living in, or travelling to, an endemic area, not previously infected
- No vaccine or antiviral currently available
- Prevention through use of insect repellants, arthropod control measures, and clothing that minimizes skin exposure, especially during daytime hours
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Domino, Frank J., et al., editors. "Chikungunya Fever." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2020. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688487/all/Chikungunya_Fever.
Chikungunya Fever. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688487/all/Chikungunya_Fever. Accessed June 1, 2023.
Chikungunya Fever. (2020). In Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult (27th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688487/all/Chikungunya_Fever
Chikungunya Fever [Internet]. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, Stephens MBM, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. [cited 2023 June 01]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688487/all/Chikungunya_Fever.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Chikungunya Fever ID - 1688487 ED - Domino,Frank J, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Stephens,Mark B, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688487/all/Chikungunya_Fever PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -