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Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections

Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Endometritis (infection of the endometrium) is the most common postpartum infection.
  • Bacterial infection of genital tract, usually within the 1st week after delivery, can occur as late as 1 to 6 weeks postpartum.
  • Postpartum infections of the myometrium and parametrial tissues are less common. Vaginal and cervical infections, perianal cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, septic pelvic vein thrombophlebitis, and parametrial phlegmon are other postpartum infections of the pelvic region that are relatively rare.
  • System(s) affected: reproductive
  • Synonym(s): postpartum infection; endometritis; endoparametritis; endomyometritis; myometritis; endomyoparametritis; metritis; metritis with pelvic cellulitis

Epidemiology

Incidence
Occurs in women of childbearing years


Prevalence
  • Occurs after 1–3% of all births
  • Infection 10 times more likely after cesarean section
    • 2–15% of infections occur prior to labor.
    • 30–35% occur after labor in absence of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis; 2–15% occur after labor with appropriate prophylaxis.
    • Fifth leading cause of maternal mortality, accounting for 11% of maternal deaths

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • Endometritis is more common in labors complicated by chorioamnionitis.
  • Other infections follow trauma to the perineum, vagina, cervix, and uterus.
  • Postpartum infections are typically polymicrobial, involving organisms ascending from the lower genital tract:
    • Aerobic isolates (70%): Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
    • Anaerobic isolates (80%): Peptococcus sp., Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., Bacteroides bivius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium sp.
  • Other genital Mycoplasma
  • Consider herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, particularly in immunocompromised patients failing to improve on appropriate antibiotics.
  • Thrombosis of any pelvic vein, including vena cava
  • Phlegmon on leaves of the broad ligament

Risk Factors

  • Cesarean delivery is the primary risk factor.
  • Chorioamnionitis
  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • Group B streptococcal colonization of genital tract
  • HIV infection
  • Prolonged labor
  • Prolonged rupture of membranes
  • Multiple vaginal examinations
  • Internal fetal monitoring during labor
  • Operative vaginal delivery; manual extraction of the placenta; care in a teaching hospital
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Obesity
  • Anemia

General Prevention

  • Vaginal delivery
    • Avoid unnecessary vaginal examinations.
    • Treat chorioamnionitis during labor.
    • Avoid manual placental extraction and retained placental products.
    • Consider antibiotic prophylaxis for third- and fourth-degree laceration (1)[B].
    • Aseptic technique for operative vaginal delivery
    • Antibiotic prophylaxis not necessary for operative vaginal delivery or manual removal of the placenta
  • Cesarean delivery
    • Preoperative paint and scrub with 10% povidone-iodine scrub or an alcohol-based solution decreases puerperal infection by up to 38%.
    • Prophylactic antibiotics before both emergency and scheduled cesarean deliveries prior to skin incision reduce postpartum infection (2)[A].
      • Administer antibiotics within 1 hour of the start of surgery (3)[B].
      • Appropriate administration of antibiotics results in a 40% reduction in postpartum maternal infections without any increase in neonatal infections (3)[B].
    • Extended coverage with cephalosporin and macrolide may further decrease infection risk (4)[A].
    • Vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine solution or alcohol-based solutions immediately before cesarean delivery reduces the risk of postoperative endometritis (5)[A].
    • Weight-based antibiotic dosage helps ensure appropriate tissue concentrations prior to skin incision.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Chorioamnionitis
  • Wound infection

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Citation

Stephens, Mark B., et al., editors. "Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116969/all/Endometritis_and_Other_Postpartum_Infections.
Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 27th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116969/all/Endometritis_and_Other_Postpartum_Infections. Accessed March 19, 2019.
Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections. (2019). In Stephens, M. B., Golding, J., Baldor, R. A., & Domino, F. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116969/all/Endometritis_and_Other_Postpartum_Infections
Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections [Internet]. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, Domino FJ, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 March 19]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116969/all/Endometritis_and_Other_Postpartum_Infections.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Endometritis and Other Postpartum Infections ID - 116969 ED - Stephens,Mark B, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Domino,Frank J, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116969/all/Endometritis_and_Other_Postpartum_Infections PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -