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- A localized area of skin or underlying tissue injury resulting from pressure and/or shear
- Classified in stages according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP):
- Stage I: nonblanchable erythema—intact skin with nonblanchable redness; darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching.
- Stage II: partial thickness skin loss—shallow open ulcer with a red-pink wound bed, without slough; or intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister
- Stage III: full thickness skin loss—subcutaneous fat may be visible but bone, tendon, or muscle is not exposed; slough, if present, does not obscure depth of tissue loss.
- Stage IV: full thickness tissue loss—exposed bone, tendon, or muscle; slough or eschar may be present but does not completely obscure wound base.
- Unstageable: depth unknown—base of the ulcer is covered by slough and/or eschar in the wound bed
- Suspected deep tissue injury: depth unknown—purple or maroon area of intact skin or blood-filled blister
- Synonyms: decubitus ulcer; bedsore; pressure injury
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Complex process of risk factors interacting with external forces (pressure and/or shear) (3)
- Impaired mobility
- Reduced perfusion
- Sensory loss
- Medical devices
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Advanced age
- Hip fractures
- Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease