Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Medicine Central™ is a quick-consult mobile and web resource that includes diagnosis, treatment, medications, and follow-up information on over 700 diseases and disorders, providing fast answers—anytime, anywhere. Explore these free sample topics:

Medicine Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

  • Degenerative change of plantar fascia at origin on medial tuberosity of calcaneus
  • Pain on plantar surface, usually at calcaneal insertion of plantar fascia upon weight bearing, especially in morning or on initiation of walking after prolonged rest
  • Also referred to as: plantar heel pain syndrome, heel spur syndrome, plantar fasciopathy, painful heel syndrome

Epidemiology

Prevalence
  • Most common cause of plantar heel pain
  • Lifetime: 10–15% of population
  • Peak incidence between ages 40 and 60 years
  • Data suggest persistence with BMI >30.
  • Condition is typically self-limiting, resolving within 12 months.

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • Repetitive microtrauma and collagen degeneration of plantar fascia
  • Chronic degenerative change (-osis/-opathy rather than -itis) of plantar fascia generally at insertion on medial tuberosity of calcaneus

Risk Factors

  • Intrinsic
    • Age (>40 to 60 years)
    • Female, pregnancy
    • Obesity (BMI >30)
    • Pes planus (flat feet), pes cavus (high arch), overpronation, leg length discrepancy
    • Hamstring, calf, and Achilles tightness
    • Calf and intrinsic foot muscle weakness
    • Decreased ankle range of motion with dorsiflexion (equinus or tight heel cord; <15 degrees of dorsiflexion)
    • Systemic connective tissue disorders
  • Extrinsic
    • Dancers, runners, court sport athletes
    • Occupations with prolonged standing, especially on hard surfaces (nurses, letter carriers, warehouse/factory workers)
    • Overuse and rapid increase in activities involving repetitive loading

General Prevention

  • Maintain normal body weight.
  • Avoid prolonged standing on bare feet, sandals, or slippers.
  • Avoid training errors (increasing intensity, distance, duration, and frequency of high-impact activities too rapidly); avoid overtraining.
  • Proper footwear (appropriate cushion/arch support)
  • Runners should replace footwear every 250 to 500 miles.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Usually isolated
  • Heel spurs common but not a marker of severity
  • Posterior tibial neuropathy

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

Stephens, Mark B., et al., editors. "Plantar Fasciitis." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116462/all/Plantar_Fasciitis.
Plantar Fasciitis. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 27th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116462/all/Plantar_Fasciitis. Accessed April 19, 2019.
Plantar Fasciitis. (2019). In Stephens, M. B., Golding, J., Baldor, R. A., & Domino, F. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116462/all/Plantar_Fasciitis
Plantar Fasciitis [Internet]. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, Domino FJ, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 19]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116462/all/Plantar_Fasciitis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Plantar Fasciitis ID - 116462 ED - Stephens,Mark B, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Domino,Frank J, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116462/all/Plantar_Fasciitis PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -