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- An acute inflammation or infection of the eyelid margin involving the sebaceous gland of an eyelash (external hordeolum) or a meibomian gland (internal hordeolum)
- System(s) affected: skin/exocrine
- Synonym(s): internal hordeolum; external hordeolum; zeisian sty; meibomian stye; stye
- Predominant age: none
- Predominant sex: male = female
Unknown: Although external hordeolum is common, internal hordeolum is rare.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Bacterial infection of sweat or sebaceous glands, causing an acute inflammatory reaction
- In an internal hordeolum, the meibomian gland may become obstructed, leading to a pustule on the conjunctival surface as opposed to the margin of the eyelid.
- Most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus (~90–95% of all cases) or by Staphylococcus epidermidis
- Seborrhea can predispose to infections of the eyelid.
No known genetic pattern
- Poor eyelid hygiene
- Previous hordeolum
- Contact lens wearers
- Application of makeup
- Seborrheic dermatitis
- Predisposing blepharitis (low-grade infections of the eyelid margin)
- Ocular rosacea
Commonly Associated Conditions
- An association may exist between hordeolum during childhood and developing rosacea in adulthood.