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Dermatitis, Diaper

Dermatitis, Diaper is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Diaper dermatitis is a rash occurring under the covered area of a diaper. It is usually initially a contact dermatitis.
  • System(s) affected: skin/exocrine
  • Synonym(s): diaper rash; nappy rash; napkin dermatitis

Geriatric Considerations
Incontinence is a significant cofactor.

Epidemiology

Incidence
  • The most common dermatitis found in infancy
  • Peak incidence: 7 to 12 months of age, then decreases
  • Lower incidence reported in breastfed babies due to lower pH, urease, protease, and lipase activity.

Prevalence
Prevalence has been variably reported from 4–35% in the first 2 years of life. Upward of 75% of infants will have episodes of varying duration and severity in United States.

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • Immature infant skin with histologic, biochemical, functional differences compared to mature skin (1)
  • Wet skin is central in the development of diaper dermatitis, as prolonged contact with urine or feces results in susceptibility to chemical, enzymatic, and physical injury; wet skin is also penetrated more easily.
  • Fecal proteases and lipases are irritants.
  • Superhydrase urease enzyme found in the stratum corneum liberates ammonia from cutaneous bacteria.
  • Fecal lipase and protease activity is increased by acceleration of GI transit; thus, a higher incidence of irritant diaper dermatitis is observed in babies who have had diarrhea in the previous 48 hours.
  • Once the skin is compromised, secondary infection by Candida albicans is common. 40–75% of diaper rashes that last >3 days are colonized with C. albicans.
  • Bacteria may play a role in diaper dermatitis through reduction of fecal pH and resulting activation of enzymes.
  • Allergy is exceedingly rare as a cause in infants.

Risk Factors

  • Infrequent diaper changes
  • Improper laundering (cloth diapers)
  • Family history of dermatitis
  • Hot, humid weather
  • Recent treatment with oral antibiotics
  • Diarrhea (>3 stools per day increases risk)
  • Dye allergy
  • Eczema may increase risk.

General Prevention

Attention to hygiene during bouts of diarrhea

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Contact (allergic or irritant) dermatitis
  • Seborrheic dermatitis
  • Psoriasis
  • Candidiasis
  • Atopic dermatitis

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Citation

Stephens, Mark B., et al., editors. "Dermatitis, Diaper." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116174/all/Dermatitis__Diaper.
Dermatitis, Diaper. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 27th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116174/all/Dermatitis__Diaper. Accessed April 26, 2019.
Dermatitis, Diaper. (2019). In Stephens, M. B., Golding, J., Baldor, R. A., & Domino, F. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116174/all/Dermatitis__Diaper
Dermatitis, Diaper [Internet]. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, Domino FJ, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 26]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116174/all/Dermatitis__Diaper.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Dermatitis, Diaper ID - 116174 ED - Stephens,Mark B, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Domino,Frank J, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116174/all/Dermatitis__Diaper PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -