- General term that includes major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder, depression associated with bipolar disorder, and adjustment disorder with depressed mood
- Syndrome of persistent sadness or irritability associated with a variety of symptoms, resulting in functional impairment in the following:
- Interpersonal (family, friends) relationships
- Health (somatic complaints, unhealthy habits)
- Work or school (task completion, grades)
- Safety (high-risk behaviors including suicide)
- Point prevalence: 6–11% of adolescents (age 13–18 years), 3–4% in younger children
- Lifetime prevalence: up to 20% will have diagnosable depression by adolescence
- Ratio of females to males: 1:1 in school-aged children, 2–3:1 in adolescents
- Often chronic with high rate of recurrence
- Often unrecognized; up to 80% of affected adolescents do not receive appropriate care.
- Family history of depression, bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior in 1st-degree relative
- Prior depressive episodes
- Personal history of anxiety disorders, ADHD, learning disabilities, and early losses
- Family dysfunction or caregiver–child conflict
- Negative style of interpreting events and coping with stress
- Substance abuse
- Trauma history (e.g., victim of abuse, bullying)
- Chronic illness (including obesity)
Commonly Associated Conditions
- 40–70% of children and adolescents with depression have comorbid psychiatric disorders:
- Anxiety disorders
- Somatization disorders
- Disruptive behavioral disorders (e.g., ADHD, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders)
- Eating disorders
- Substance abuse
- Physical or sexual abuse
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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Depression." Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics, 7th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14114/all/Depression.
Depression. In: Cabana MDM, ed. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14114/all/Depression. Accessed June 10, 2023.
Depression. (2015). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics (7th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14114/all/Depression
Depression [Internet]. In: Cabana MDM, editors. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. [cited 2023 June 10]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14114/all/Depression.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Depression ID - 14114 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14114/all/Depression PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -