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Intoeing–Tibial Torsion

Intoeing–Tibial Torsion is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics.

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  • Intoeing, as a presumptive diagnosis, results in numerous orthopedic consultations.
  • Causes of intoeing are most frequently one or more of the following: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion.
  • Definitions:
    • Version: normal variation in axial alignment
    • Torsion: any variation beyond two standard deviations of normal
  • Clear explanation of the difference between physiologic variations and pathologic anatomy will allow the treating physician to effectively manage expectations.


Very common; one the most common reasons for a “well child” to visit an orthopedist

Risk Factors


No strong evidence of familial links


  • Most are self-limiting issues but when paired together, can cause significant issues.
  • Excessive femoral anteversion and external tibial torsion can result in the so-called “miserable malalignment,” known to cause significant patellofemoral issues.


  • In utero, fetuses are subjected to forces that mold feet and tibiae into adductus and internal torsion, respectively.
  • Most children are born with a relatively increased femoral anteversion (approximately 45 degrees).
    • Tends to resolve and “unwind” as the child develops
    • Usually resolves by age 8–10 years to the normal adult anteversion of 10–20 degrees

Commonly Associated Conditions

May be more common in first-born children (especially metatarsus adductus) as part of the “packaging disorders” such as developmental dysplasia of the hip and torticollis

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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Intoeing–Tibial Torsion." Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics, 7th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14047/all/Intoeing–Tibial_Torsion.
Intoeing–Tibial Torsion. In: Cabana MD, ed. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14047/all/Intoeing–Tibial_Torsion. Accessed April 21, 2019.
Intoeing–Tibial Torsion. (2015). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Available from https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14047/all/Intoeing–Tibial_Torsion
Intoeing–Tibial Torsion [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14047/all/Intoeing–Tibial_Torsion.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Intoeing–Tibial Torsion ID - 14047 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14047/all/Intoeing–Tibial_Torsion PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 7 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -