Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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Etiology

Transudates

  • Congestive heart failure (most common)
  • Cirrhosis with ascites
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Peritoneal dialysis
  • Myxedema
  • Acute atelectasis
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Superior vena cava obstruction
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Urinothorax (due to obstructive uropathy)
Exudates
  • Pneumonia (parapneumonic effusion)
  • Cancer
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Empyema
  • Tuberculosis
  • Connective tissue disease (eg, rheumatoid arthritis)
  • Viral infection
  • Fungal infection
  • Rickettsial infection
  • Parasitic infection (eg, Paragonimus)
  • Asbestos
  • Meigs' syndrome
  • Pancreatic disease
  • Uremia
  • Chronic atelectasis
  • Trapped lung
  • Chylothorax
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Drug reaction
  • Post-myocardial infarction syndrome
  • Esophageal rupture

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Last updated: December 1, 2014