• Relative ("spurious") polycythemia
  • Polycythemia vera (primary polycythemia)
  • Secondary polycythemia
    • Hypoxia: cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, high altitude
    • Carboxyhemoglobin (smoking)
    • Renal cyst or hydronephrosis
    • Erythropoietin-secreting tumors (rare): renal cell or hepatocellular carcinoma, adrenal tumor, cerebellar hemangioma, uterine leiomyoma
    • Abnormal hemoglobins (rare)

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Last updated: December 1, 2014