• Hypoxia, eg, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, congestive heart failure (CHF), valvular heart disease, hypotension, shunt, severe anemia, high altitude
  • Cold exposure
  • Raynaud’s syndrome
  • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
  • Methemoglobinemia
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Polyarteritis nodosa

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Last updated: December 1, 2014