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- Increased intracranial pressure with no clear pathophysiology
- Many have suggested calling it pseudotumor cerebri syndrome emphasizing the variety of subtypes (1).
- Subtypes include true idiopathic intracranial hypertension, idiopathic intracranial hypertension with underlying cause, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema.
- 0.9/100,000 in general population (2)
- 4 to 11.9/100,000 in obese women
- 19/100,000 in women >20% over ideal body weight and reported 323/100,000 in those seeking bariatric surgery (3)
- In prepubertal children, males and females equally affected
- Rare in children <3 years or adults >60 years
- Men potential bimodal distribution, prepubertal and middle-aged (4)
- Hypothesized increasing incidence due to increased rates of obesity but not studied
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Unknown certain etiology
- Associated with obesity and questionable increased intra-abdominal pressure (8)
- Possible new cause with elevated aldosterone
- Related to sex hormones; noted to be associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and low testosterone in men
- Questions concerning whether venous sinus stenosis is the cause of or the consequence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (9)
No known hereditary factors
Because correlated with weight gain, weight management is the only known prevention although not specifically stated.