Brain Tumor, Epidermoid
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- Epidermoid tumors are benign, congenital cysts that occur intradurally and extradurally. They are slow-growing and produce symptoms gradually.
- Also called epidermoid cysts, primary cholesteatomas, and epidermoid inclusion cysts
- Third most common tumors of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA)
Rare intracranial growths constituting 1.8–2.2% of all intracranial tumors
- Presentation can be at any age but most commonly between the 3rd and 5th decades of life.
- Equal incidence in men and women
- There is a wide ethnic distribution, and there is no known preponderance in any region.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Considered a benign lesion; malignant transformation is rare.
- Growth is secondary to accumulation of desquamated epithelial cells; follows a linear growth rate
- Symptoms are due to mass effect and displacement of local structures. Depending on tumor location, it may result in cranial nerve, blood vessel, and brainstem compression.
- Derived from squamous epithelium that is included during neural tube closure
- Epidermoid tumors grow slowly from the buildup of keratin and cholesterol from the continual shedding of the epithelium lining the cyst.
- Formed at the time of neural tube closure between the 3rd and 5th weeks of embryonic life
- Common locations include CPA, parapontine, parapituitary, middle cranial fossa, and dipole of the fontanel.
- Multiple lumbar punctures have been known to be a rare cause.