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Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon benign and chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by single/multiple facial cutaneous nodules.
Primarily a disease of middle-aged white men with rare reports of GF in Japanese, blacks, and children
Rare; precise incidence and prevalence are unknown.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Etiology and pathogenesis are not clearly defined, but several hypotheses exist.
- Some cases are idiopathic.
- Production of interleukin-5 by a clonal T-cell population may lead to attraction of eosinophils to the affected area.
- A γ-interferon–mediated process has also been proposed.
- Sun exposure may play a role, as lesions are more common in sun-exposed areas and sunlight may darken lesions.
Sun exposure and heat exposure can darken lesions.
Commonly Associated Conditions
Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF), which involves mucosal lesions of the nose/mouth, may have concurrent GF in approximately 1/4 of cases and should be considered in GF patients with nasal/upper respiratory symptoms.