- Stones in common bile duct (CBD)
- Several types: cholesterol (majority), calcium bilirubinate or pigment, and mixed stones
- System(s) affected: gastrointestinal; hepatobiliary
- Synonym(s): CBD stones; CBD calculi
- Gallstone disease affects >20 million Americans (14.2 million females, 6.3 million males).
- Choledocholithiasis noted in 7–12% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones
- Choledocholithiasis noted in 18–33% of patients with acute biliary pancreatitis
- Incidence increases with age (30–50% of patients >60 years with gallstones have concurrent CBD stones):
- Patients with choledocholithiasis are, on average, 10 years older than those with cholelithiasis.
- Internationally, incidence is increased due to parasitic infections (e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides).
- Associated with chronic conditions such as dyslipidemia, obesity, cardiovascular disease, as well as increased risk of mortality
- Symptomatic gallstone disease affects 10% of the U.S. population, leading to ~700,000 cholecystectomies at an annual cost of ~$6.5 billion.
- Twice as common among women
- Increased prevalence among Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- CBD stones may be primary or secondary:
- Primary stones form within the biliary tract with bile stasis or chronic bactibilia.
- Secondary stones (more common) form within the gallbladder and migrate to the biliary tree.
- Stones may migrate to the duodenum or remain in the CBD (due to small diameter of Vater papilla). Not all CBD stones are symptomatic.
- Obstruction leads to jaundice. Biliary stasis can trigger infection (e.g., ascending cholangitis).
- Dysfunction/obstruction of the CBD and/or main pancreatic duct can trigger acute pancreatitis.
- Chronic hemolytic states increase the risk for gallstone formation.
- Formation of de novo pigment stones can result from:
- Dilated, sclerosed, or strictured ducts (e.g., recurrent cholangitis)
- Hepatobiliary parasitism (A. lumbricoides or Clonorchis sinensis)
- MDR3 defects may predispose to biliary sludge, cholelithiasis, cholestasis of pregnancy, and subsequent choledocholithiasis.
- Variants of UGT1A1 responsible for bilirubin conjugation may increase cholesterol and pigment gallstone formation.
- Hepatobiliary cholesterol hemitransporter ABCG8 variant p.D19H doubles the odds of gallstone recurrence after cholecystectomy.
- LITH genes are thought to increase susceptibility to development of gallstones. Studies in mice show this class of genes creates a lithogenic environment by altering various lipid transporters, nuclear hormone receptors, and enzymes.
- Obesity; high caloric diet, low-fiber diet
- Rapid weight loss (>25% of original weight, especially after bariatric surgery) or prolonged fasting
- Gender (females > males)
- Family history
- Crohn disease
- Gallbladder stasis: spinal cord injury, somatostatin
- Drugs (octreotide, thiazide diuretics)
- Chronic estrogen exposure
- Prior cholecystectomy:
- <2 years prior: Consider retained stone.
- >2 years prior: Consider recurrent stone.
- Maintain healthy weight and lifestyle. Avoid rapid weight loss.
- Consider UDCA therapy in LPAC syndrome.
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis
- Gallstone pancreatitis
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Domino, Frank J., et al., editors. "Choledocholithiasis." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2020. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688513/all/Choledocholithiasis.
Choledocholithiasis. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688513/all/Choledocholithiasis. Accessed May 31, 2023.
Choledocholithiasis. (2020). In Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult (27th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688513/all/Choledocholithiasis
Choledocholithiasis [Internet]. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, Stephens MBM, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. [cited 2023 May 31]. Available from: https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688513/all/Choledocholithiasis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Choledocholithiasis ID - 1688513 ED - Domino,Frank J, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Stephens,Mark B, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688513/all/Choledocholithiasis PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - Medicine Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -