Granuloma, Pyogenic

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  • Pyogenic granulomas (PG), also called lobular capillary hemangiomas, are benign vascular proliferations that can appear on the skin and mucus membranes. Most common sites are head and neck, the lips and oral cavity, the trunk, and the extremities (1,2).
  • They are friable and tend to bleed profusely due to the vascular nature of the lesion.
  • Smooth, red to purple, sessile or pedunculated, grow rapidly over several weeks
  • Rarely regress completely without intervention (2)


  • The peak incidence of PG occurs in children and young adults (2).
  • Commonly seen in early pregnancy

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • Definitive cause unknown
  • Thought to be associated with capillary proliferation resulting from aberrant healing response to minor trauma
  • Associated with peripheral nerve injury, inflammatory systemic diseases, and drugs (retinoids, systemic steroids, protease inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors)
  • May be related to hormonal changes in pregnancy
  • Not considered a hemangioma or neoplasm; no true granulomatous histology present

Risk Factors

  • Pregnancy
  • Trauma
  • Intraoral trauma or surgery
  • Inflammatory systemic diseases

General Prevention

Good oral hygiene may be helpful.

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