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- Chronic inflammatory lesion of nasal mucosa
- Arise from ethmoidal cells but can arise from maxillary sinus mucosa although less common
- Appearance of edematous pedunculated mass in the nasal cavity or within the paranasal sinus
- Often causes symptoms of blockage, discharge, or loss of smell
- Most commonly bilateral; suspect tumor, such as inverted papilloma, if unilateral.
- Prevalence ~4% in general population
- Much rarer in children: ~0.1% and associated with cystic fibrosis
- Increases with age
- Predominant sex: female > male (2:1)
- Asthma is present in 65% of patients; 25% of patients have undiagnosed asthma.
- No clearly delineated pathway; research has demonstrated separate TH1- and TH2-driven pathways (1)[B].
- Development of condition remains unclear; multiple inflammatory and infectious pathways resulting from chronic rhinosinusitis is most common.
Use of intranasal corticosteroids after polyp removal surgery has shown effectiveness against recurrence.
Commonly Associated Conditions
- Bronchial asthma
- Aspirin hypersensitivity
- Allergic rhinitis
- Cigarette smoking promotes eosinophilic inflammation.
- Chronic sinusitis
- Allergic fungal sinusitis
- Aspirin sensitivity
- Cystic fibrosis
- Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome)
- Laryngopharyngeal reflux