Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Neonatal

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Neonatal is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Medicine Central™ is a quick-consult mobile and web resource that includes diagnosis, treatment, medications, and follow-up information on over 700 diseases and disorders, providing fast answers—anytime, anywhere. Explore these free sample topics:

Medicine Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

  • Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is a disorder primarily of prematurity manifest by respiratory distress.
  • System(s) affected: respiratory
  • Synonym(s): hyaline membrane disease; surfactant deficiency

ALERT
A disorder of the neonatal period

Epidemiology

Incidence
  • >90% incidence in infants born ≤28 weeks’ gestation
  • Inversely proportional to gestational age
  • Gender: slight male predominance
  • Eighth leading cause of infant death in United States in 2013: 13.3 infant deaths per 100,000 live births (1)

Etiology and Pathophysiology

  • Impaired surfactant synthesis and secretion
  • High oxygen exposure and barotrauma can cause further damage to alveolar epithelium.

Genetics
No known genetic pattern

Risk Factors

  • Premature birth
  • Infants of diabetic mothers
  • Perinatal asphyxia
  • History of RDS in a sibling

General Prevention

  • Prevention of premature birth:
    • Education
    • Regular prenatal care
    • Management of maternal medical conditions
  • Promote healthy behaviors during pregnancy focusing on:
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Avoidance of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk for premature birth between 24 and 33 6/7 weeks’ gestation including those with ruptured membranes and multiple gestations (2)[C]

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --