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An acute, generalized paramyxovirus infection typically presenting with unilateral or bilateral parotitis
- Can be asymptomatic in 1/3 of nonimmune individuals and 60% of previously vaccinated cases
- Painful parotitis occurs in 95% of symptomatic mumps cases.
- Epidemics in late winter and spring; transmission by respiratory secretions
- Incubation period is 14 to 24 days.
- System(s) affected: hematologic/lymphatic/immunologic, reproductive, skin, exocrine
- Synonym(s): epidemic parotitis; infectious parotitis
- 85% of mumps cases occur prior to 15 years of age.
- Adult cases are typically more severe.
- Predominant sex: male = female
- Geriatric population: Most adults are immune.
- Acute epidemic mumps
- Most cases occur in unvaccinated children 5 to 15 years of age.
- Recent (2015 to 2016) U.S. outbreaks in college students Illinois/Iowa:
- Another U.S. epidemic in 2009 to 2010 in New York/New Jersey: >1,500 cases
- Mumps is unusual in children <2 years of age; most infants <1 year are immune.
- Period of maximal communicability is 24 hours before to 72 hours after onset of parotitis.
- 5,833 cases in the United States in 2016
- Since 1967 (national vaccination program), case rate has dropped from 100/100,000 to 1.8/100,000.
- Occasional regional epidemic outbreaks
- 0.0064/100,000 persons in United States
- 90% of adults are seropositive.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Mumps virus replicates in glandular epithelium of parotid gland, pancreas, and testes, leading to interstitial edema and inflammation.
- Interstitial glandular hemorrhage may occur.
- Pressure caused by testicular edema against the tunica albuginea can lead to necrosis and loss of function.
- Foreign travel: Some nations do not vaccinate for mumps, including most of Africa and Asia.
- Crowded environments such as dormitories, barracks, or detention facilities increase risk of transmission.
- Immunity wanes after single-dose vaccination:
- With two dose schedule, immunity drops from 95% to 86% after 9 years.
- Two doses of live mumps vaccine or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine are recommended, first at 12 to 15 months and second at 4 to 6 years.
- 95% effective in clinical studies; field trials show 68–95% efficacy, which may be below level for herd immunity to prevent spread.
- Prevention may require 95% 1st dose and >80% second-dose adherence.
- Adverse effects: fever 8/100,000; seizure 25/100,000; thrombocytopenic purpura 3/100,000
- No relationship between MMR vaccine and autism celiac disease or multiple sclerosis (1)
- Immunoglobulin (Ig) does not prevent mumps.
- Postexposure vaccination does not protect from recent exposure (2)[B].
- Isolate hospitalized patients for 5 days after onset.
- Isolate nonimmune individuals for 26 days after last case onset (social quarantine).
- In an epidemic situation, a 3rd dose of MMR may decrease the attack rate (3).
- Vaccine neutralizing antibodies are still effective against variant strains of mumps virus (4).
- Live viral vaccines are typically contraindicated in pregnancy; however, vaccination of children should not be delayed due to a pregnant family member.
- Immunization of contacts protects against future (but not current) exposures.