Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Relaxation or incompetence of lower esophageal sphincter
- Hiatal hernia
- Abnormal acid clearance (esophageal peristalsis), eg, scleroderma
- Impaired salivation (exacerbates gastroesophageal reflux disease), eg, Sjögren’s syndrome, anticholinergics, radiation
- Delayed gastric emptying (exacerbates gastroesophageal reflux disease), eg, gastroparesis
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